Shortly about the iodine functions in the human body activity. Iodine is an inseparable part of the thyroid hormones. Entering the human body with food and water iodine is actively caught by the thyroid gland from blood and is used for formation of hormones which take part in the development and regulation of mental and nervous system, thyroid glands, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, reproduction function, skin, hair and musculoskeletal system.
The world’s medicine has claimed iodine deficiency to be the main threat for human intellect and development. The daily iodine micro dose stimulates the cognitive ability of a human being, determines its success in any activity and is the basis of development of other abilities.
The iodine content in food and water differs from country to country. Practically all over the Russian territory the endemic disease caused by iodine deficiency is spread to different extents. Iodine deficiency is more acute in highland and piedmont areas (the Northern Caucasus, Altay, the Siberian plateau, the Far East). The similar situation is not in the whole world. The average daily iodine consumption in different countries can be found in Table No.1.
Table No.1. Average daily iodine consumption in different countries.
|Country (literature source)||Average daily iodine consumption, mcg/human/day||Range of average daily iodine consumption, mcg/human/day|
|Australia (Eastman, 1993)||200|
|Bulgaria (Gutekunst et al, 1992)||20-60|
|Germany (Pfaff et al., 1995)||76||55-100|
|Denmark (Lamberg et al, 1993)||300-350||300-687|
|Spain (Muros ct al, 1992)||286,4-11344|
|Canada (Dussault, 1993)||1000||60% — salt; 25% — milk products|
|China (Hou et al, 1997)||166||139-208|
|Korea (Kim et al, 1998) (Moon et al, 1999)||61-4086 1295-2744 (breast feeding women)|
|Great Britain (Lazazus, 1993) (Nelson et al, 1985), (Lee et al, 1994)||225 173
|Men in summer — 195, in winter — 306 Women in summer 126, in winter — 236 140-1000|
|Poland (Gembick, 1993)||125-250|
|Russia (МУ 18.104.22.1684.01.2001)||40-80|
|The USA (Allegrini et al, 1983) (Pino et al, 1993)||554||310-778 1 70-700|
On the basis of the above mentioned data it is evident that the Russian citizens need the additional iodine supplier.
Iodine consumption norms. The daily need for iodine depends on the age and physiological condition. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the following daily iodine doses:
Table No.2. Physiological daily need for iodine (micrograms)
|Groups of people||Need for iodine in mcg/day|
|Children up to one year old||50|
|Children from 2 to 6 years old||90|
|Children from 7 to 12 years old||120|
|Young people (from 12 and older) and adults||150|
|Pregnant and during the breast feeding period||200|
The average iodine consumption in Russia is equal to 40 – 80 mcg a day, the recommended norm being 150 mcg a day, that is 2-3 times less than the physiological needs. And if the recommended need for iodine during the pregnancy period is equal to 200 mcg, than it turns out that pregnant women in Russia get 2,5 – 5 times more iodine than it is needed. Thus, at first it is necessary to take care of the problem solution regarding children, young people and, of course, pregnant women, that is the people on whom the nation’s intellectual and creative potential depends.
Everything is good in the right measure! It is necessary to remember that iodine must be consumed in proportion. Extensive iodine consumption exceeding the recommended physiological norms by hundreds and thousands of times as well as iodine deficiency can lead to thyroid disorders. For the whole lifetime a human being consumes 3-5 grams of iodine. It is about one tea spoon of this substance.
Ways of iodine deficiency elimination. There are three variants of iodine deficiency preventive measures: global, group-wide and individual. The most effective one is the global preventive measures which consist of salt iodine introduction into the most widespread products (salt, bread, water). For realization of this variant the support of the legal system is necessary. However, unfortunately, for the past several decades iodine deficiency prevention programs were stopped. That is why “Russalt” LTD. wants to inform the Russian population about the way to solve the problem correctly and effectively.
As a part of the individual preventive measures every person should choose an additional iodine source for themselves. The most universal is iodized salt.
Why salt? As:
– practically everyone consumes it;
– it is a cheap product which is available for everyone;
– salt is consumed in small amounts that is why it is possible to introduce more iodine than into other products;
– the price of iodized common salt practically does not differ from non-iodized.
Salt rich in iodine is a safe food product.
Iodized salt is not a medicine which must be prescribed by a doctor. It does not contain pharmacological iodine doses and is a usual food product which is rich in iodine – as, for instance, sea weed.
Iodized salt is good for long-term storage, cooking and preserving: iodine does not evaporate in big amounts, does not melt away under the influence of the temperature and does not change its taste and color of products. It is due to the new standard of salt iodization – potassium iodate, a combination much more stable than iodide.
Humans need iodine during the whole life. As we have already found out, the daily iodine consumption norm for an adult is equal to 150 mcg. Iodine content in the iodized salt by “Russalt” LTD. is equal to 40,0±15 mcg in a gram of salt. From the maximum allowed salt consumption of 10 grams a person can get up to 400 mcg of iodine a day. From the recommended salt consumption of 5-6 grams – up to 200 mcg a day.
Thus, iodized salt usage is an effective method of iodine deficiency elimination. It is enough just to change the usual salt for the iodized salt, and the population of Russia will be able to prevent the development of thyroid disorders, be healthy and overcome the decrease of intellectual abilities.